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SEBIS, S. and PAU, L. - New data on the Nuragic settlement in the Campidano di Oristano: the site of Bau ‘e Procus (Silì- Oristano)

AUTHORS

Salvatore Sebis, Laura Pau

CATEGORY

Article

LANGUAGE

English

ABSTRACT

The paper concerns the archaeological materials coming from surveys carried out in the area of the Middle Bronze Age site of Bau 'e Procus, located in the floodplain of the Campidano Oristano, on the left bank of the River Tirso, about 800 m away from the modern town of Silì. The data analysed come from several surveys carried out by Salvatore Sebis and Gianni Atzori, between 1977 and 2006.

The aim of the study is to improve our understanding of early and advanced stages of the Middle Bronze Age (1700-1500 BC) in the area that extends inland from the Gulf of Oristano, in Central-Western Sardinia. These phases are characterised by the widespread presence of villages, usually of modest size, made up of sunken structures.

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INTRODUCTION (S.S.)

The following study concerns the archaeological materials coming from surveys carrried out in the area of the Middle Bronze Age site of Bau 'e Procus, located in the floodplain of the Campidano Oristano, on the left bank of the River Tirso, about 800 m away from the modern town of Silì (Fig. 1, n. 12). The data analysed below is drawn from several surveys carried out by Salvatore Sebis and Gianni Atzori, between 1977 and 2006 (Atzori 1992: 133, pl. II.11-12, 15-28). 

Fig. 1 - Distribution of the Middle Bronze Age settlements formed of sunken structures in the Campidano of Oristano and in Sinis.

 

The aim of the study is to improve our understanding of early and advanced stages of the Middle Bronze Age (1700-1500 BC) in the area that extends inland from the Gulf of Oristano, in Central-Western Sardinia. These phases are characterised by the widespread presence of villages, usually of modest size, made up of sunken structures (Sebis 1998; 2006; 2009; Sebis and Pau forthcoming; Usai 2011; Depalmas, Vidili 2011; Castangia 2011).

Fifteen of these settlements, including Bau 'e Procus, are located in the Campidano of the Oristano region, two of them lying in the lowlands surrounding the Stagno di Cabras to the west (Fig. 1). As regards the three sectors in which the territory was divided in the Middle Age (the so-called ‘Curatorie’), 11 settlements are included in the Campidano Maggiore, two in the Campidano of Simaxis and two in the Campidano Milis.

In general it should be noted that the archaeological data currently available for this particular settlement form is still fragmentary, having been mostly acquired through surface surveying and only occasionally investigated by excavation, as in the case of the site of Sa Osa -S'Arrieddu - Cabras (Usai 2011). Furthermore seven villages do not have any graphic documentation relating to the collected materials.

It is clear that a good knowledge of what is presently unpublished data is necessary to undertake a valid study of the Middle Bronze Age phase, and this paper represents an important contribution in this direction.
 
 

MIDDLE BRONZE AGE SUNKEN-HUTS VILLAGES IN THE CAMPIDANO OF ORISTANO AND THE SINIS (S.S.)

 
Campidano Maggiore region

1. Lisandru (Tramatza-OR) (Fig. 1.1)

. Year of discovery: 1990;
. First report: Sebis 2009;
. Type of intervention: survey;
. Unpublished materials.

2. Su Barrocu (Siamaggiore-OR) (Fig. 1.2)
. Year of discovery: 1993;
. First report: Sebis 1998;
. Type of intervention: survey;
. Unpublished materials.

3. Bidazzoni Noa (Zeddiani-OR) (Fig. 1.3)
. Year of discovery: 1992;
. First report: Sebis 1998;
. Type of intervention: survey;
. Total finds published: no. 39, of which no. 24 ceramic (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.1-24), n. 6 lithics (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.25-30)

Fig. 2 - Bidazzoni Noa (Zeddiani-OR), from Sebis 2009, p. 34, fig. 5.1-30.


4. Sipoi (Baratili San Pietro-OR) (Fig. 1.4);
. Year of discovery: 2004;
. First report: Sebis 2009;
. Type of intervention: stratigraphic excavation emergency;
. Sebis and Pau forthcoming.
 

Fig. 3 - Sipoi (Baratili San Pietro-OR). Plan at the base of the sunken structure.
 

Fig. 4 - Sipoi (Baratili San Pietro-OR). Alignment of post holes in the sunken structure.
 
Fig. 5 - Sipoi (Baratili San Pietro-OR). Section A-A of the sunken structure.


5. Gribaia (Nurachi-OR) (Fig. 1.5)
. Year of discovery: 1996;
. First report: Sebis 1998;
. Type of intervention: research area;
. Unpublished materials.

6. Montegonella (Nuraxinieddu-OR) (Fig. 1.6)
. Year of discovery: 1975;
. First report: Sebis 1986;
. Type of intervention: research area;
. Total finds edited: no. 76, of which no. 64 ceramic (Sebis 1986: 19-20, figs. 1-2), n. 12 lithic (Sebis 1986: 21, fig. 3).
 

Fig. 6 - Montegonella (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1986: 19, Fig. 1.
 
Fig. 7 - Montegonella (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1986: 20, Fig. 2.
 
Fig. 8 - Montegonella (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1986: 21, Fig. 3.


7. Santa Maria su Claru (Nuraxinieddu-OR) (Fig. 1.7)
. Year of discovery: 1992;
. First report: Sebis 1995;
. Type of intervention: research area;
. Total pottery published: n. 47 (Sebis 1995: 116-117, pis. VI-VII).


Fig. 9 - Santa Maria su Claru (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1995: 116, pl. VI.
 

Fig. 10 - Santa Maria su Claru (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1995: 117, pl. VII.


8. Santa Vittoria (Nuraxinieddu-OR) (Fig. 1.8)
. Year of discovery: 1972;
. First report: Sebis 1987;
. Type of intervention: research area and stratigraphic excavations;
. Total finds edited: no. 85, with n. 76 ceramic (Sebis 1992: 143, pl. II.b; Sebis 1995: 113-115, pis. III-V; Sebis 2006: 139, fig. 27), n. 7 lithic (Sebis 2006: 140, fig. 28.1-7), n. 2 copper or bronze (Sebis 2006: 140, fig. 28.8-9).
 
Fig. 11 - Santa Vittoria (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1992: 143, pl. II.b.
 

Fig. 12 - Santa Vittoria (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1995: 113, pl. III.
 

Fig. 13 - Santa Vittoria (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1995: 114, pl. IV.
 

Fig. 14 - Santa Vittoria (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 1995: 115, pl. V.
 

Fig. 15 - Santa Vittoria (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 2006: 139, fig. 27.
 

Fig. 16 - Santa Vittoria (Nuraxinieddu-OR). From Sebis 2006: 140, fig. 28.


9. Sa Paui (Nuraxinieddu-OR) (Fig. 1.9)
. Year of discovery: 70s;
. First report: Sebis forthcoming;
. Type of intervention: research area;
. Unpublished materials.

10. Sa Osa - S'Arrieddu (Cabras-OR) (Fig. 1.10)
. Year of discovery: 1972;
. First report: Atzori 1992;
. Type of intervention: research area and stratigraphic excavations;
. Total pottery published: n. 20 (Atzori 1992: 133, pl. II.14; Depalmas, Vidili 2011: 203-207, figs. 5-9; Pau forthcoming);


Fig. 17 - Sa-Osa S'Arrieddu (Cabras-OR). From Atzori 1992: 133, pl. II.14.
 

Fig. 18 - Sa Osa (Cabras-OR), α structure. From Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 203, fig. 5.
 

Fig. 19 - Sa Osa (Cabras-OR), α structure. From Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 204, fig. 6.
 

Fig. 20 - Sa Osa (Cabras-OR), α structure. From Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 205, fig. 7.
 

Fig. 21 - Sa Osa (Cabras-OR), α structure. From Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 206, fig. 8.
 

Fig. 22 - Sa Osa (Cabras-OR), α structure. From Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 207, fig. 9.


11. Su Mattoni (Donigala-OR) (Fig. 1.11)
. Year of discovery: 1998;
. First report: Santa Maria su Claru 2009;
. Type of intervention: survey;
. Unpublished materials.

Campidano di Simaxis region

12. Bau 'e Procus - Cuccuru de S'Arena (Silì-OR) (Fig. 1.12)
. Year of discovery: 60s of last century;
. First report: Atzori 1992;
. Type of intervention: survey;
. Total pottery published: n. 16 (Atzori 1992: 133, pl. II.11-12, 15-28).


Fig. 23 - Bau 'e Procus-Cuccuru de S'Arena (Silì-OR). From Atzori 1992: 133, pl. II.11-12, 15-28.

 
13. Sant’Elia (Santa Giusta-OR) (Fig. 1.13)
. Year of discovery: 1981;
. First report: Atzori 1992;
. Type of intervention: survey;
. Total pottery published: n. 10 (Atzori 1992: 133, pl. II.1-10).

 
Fig. 24 - Sant'Elia (Santa Giusta-OR). From Atzori 1992: 133, pl. II.1-10.

Campidano di Milis region

14. Perda Lada (San Vero Milis-OR) (Fig. 1.14)
. Year of discovery: 80s;
. First report: Sebis cds;
. Type of intervention: survey;
. Unpublished materials.

15. Campu de Santu Perdu (Narbolia-OR) (fig. 1.15)
. Year of discovery: 80s of last century;
. First report: Tore, Stiglitz 1992;
. Type of intervention: research area;
. Total pottery published: n. 13 (Usai 2005: 51, fig. 14.1-13).


Fig. 25 - Campu Santu de Perdu. From Usai 2005: 51, fig. 14.1-13.
 

Sinis region

16. Conca Illonis (Cabras-OR) (Fig. 1.16)
. Year of discovery: 1987;
. First report: Sebis 1987;
. Type of intervention: research area;
. Total pottery published: n. 57 (Sebis 1998: 156-159, pl. IX-XII).


Fig. 26 - Conca Illonis (Cabras-OR). From Sebis 1998: 156, pl. IX.
 

Fig. 27 - Conca Illonis (Cabras-OR). From Sebis 1998: 157, pl. X.
 

Fig. 28 - Conca Illonis (Cabras-OR). From Sebis 1998: 157, pl. XI.
 

Fig. 29 - Conca Illonis (Cabras-OR). From Sebis 1998: 159, pl. XII.


 17. Cuccuru de is Cassonis (Cabras-OR) (Fig. 1.17)
. Year of discovery: 1999;
. First report: unpublished;
. Type of intervention: research area;
. Unpublished materials.
 

THE SETTLEMENT OF BAU 'EPROCUS (S.S.)


The name Bau 'e Procus identifies a large area that extends along the Pleistocene alluvial terrace that flanks the valley on the left of the lower Tirso, within the historical and geographical region called Campidano of Simaxis or Campidano Minore and located on the stretch of territory between the villages of Oristano and Silì.

The first archaeological investigations on the site were conducted at the end of the nineteenth century by Tito Zanardelli who reported the discovery of obsidian flakes and cores, thus assuming the presence of a small prehistoric center (Zanardelli 1899: 114-115). Research in the same area was undertaken in the 50s and 60s of the last century by the scholars Felice Cherchi Paba and Giuseppe Atzori. Among the materials collected by Cherchi Paba, we can list only a ‘phallic amulet’ and a plaque-idol 'accettiforme' published by Atzeni in 1975 and attributed to the Late Neolithc phase Ozieri - 3900-3200 BC (Atzeni 1975: 16, tav. VI, 2, 'amuleto fallico'; pp. 18-19, tav. VII, 1, 'placca-idolo accettiforme'). Atzori in 1992 published 16 Middle Bronze Age potsherds from the site (Atzori 1992: 130;  p. 133, tav. II, 11-12¸15-28). He designates the place of discovery by the name 'Cuccuru S'Arena', which actually refers to a more limited area of the site of Bau 'e Procus (Fig. 30).


Figure 30 - Bau 'e Procus (Silì-Oristano). Area of the Middle Bronze Age village and localization of the three cultural deposits outcropping on the ground (1-3). Riel. from CTIM, ed., 1975: Item 528-B 4-III Oristano.


Figure 31 - Bau 'e Procus. Area of the village of BM from South-East. No. 51 (0606): 08/13/06.


Further surveys were undertaken at Bau 'e Procus between the years 1977 and 2006. As a result, it became clear that the Neo-Eneolithic village, which the obsidian tools found by Zanardelli and the ''phallic amulet' and 'plate-accettiforme idol' found by Cherchi Paba derive from, occupies a larger area- practically the entire margin of the alluvial terrace from the area of the La Maddalena church in Silì to the area of Torangius, close to Oristano, along a stretch of about 1km. Other ceramic materials found on the surface confirm the presence of a settlement which can be dated to the Sub-Ozieri cultural tradition (circa 3200-2700 BC) (Lugliè 1995: 73; p. 85, fig. 1.16; Lugliè 1998: 18-19).

Traces of the Middle Bronze Age settlement have, however, been highlighted over a more limited area, which corresponds with the site identified by Atzori as Cuccuru de S'Arena. In the same place several fragments of pottery and obsidian tools dated to the Sub-Ozieri phase were collected, together with Roman Imperial phase pottery. The Middle Bronze Age village remains do not occupy a large area – just 100x75 m. The most visible traces are three big black patches on the top of the alluvial soil, which have yielded fragments of pottery, stone tools, plaster and bones. The surfaces of these three dark spots could be compared with the sunken structures excavated in the sites of Sipoi (Sebis, Pau cds) and Sa Osa (Usai 2011; Depalmas and Vidili 2011), as could the presence of fragments of fired clay with imprints of branches, interpreted as residual parts of the plaster clay which originally covered the walls and roofs of huts (Sebis 1986: 18; Sebis 1998: 135, note 53; Sebis 2006: 121; Sebis cds; Depalmas, Vidili 2011, p. 194).

The settlement seems to reproduce some key features that distinguish sites associated with the initial to advanced stages of the Middle Bronze Age, documented in the plain of Campidano of Oristano. Its geomorphological position, consisting of an alluvial bump, is the same as several other sites of the same phase such as Sa Osa, Sipoi, Gribaia, with other settlements located on both the top and the slope of an alluvial terrace (e.g. S. Vittoria, Santa Maria su Claru).  
 
 
POTTERY ANALYSIS (L.P.)
 
In analysing the pottery from Bau 'e Procus, we proceeded with a division of ware classes which follows the standard taxonomy used for the Sardinian Protohistoric period (Campus and Leonelli 2000). Within the classes, indications of the contexts in which similar pottery was found are included in order to delineate a preliminary chronological and cultural framework.

Pans

The class of pans is well represented at the site of Bau 'e Procus, as is typical for Middle Bronze Age contexts in Sardinia. Pans are classified by the height and inclination of the walls. The profile  can be straight, concave or convex. In some cases the base can be distinguished from the rim, while in some other cases it shows continuity with it.
 
Those pans with short and concave walls, from vertical to slightly open, and a rim which can be either rounded or flattened on the top (Fig. 32.1 and 2), are comparable to those found at the sites of Montegonella of Nuraxinieddu (Sebis 1986: 19, fig. 1.2), Sipoi of Baratili (Sebis and Pau forthcoming, fig. 2.4), Friarosu of Mogorella (Manca Demurtas and Demurtas 1984, fig. 20.4), the nuraghi Santu Antine of Torralba (Bafico and Rossi 1988: 115, fig. 27.2), and Fruscos of Paulilatino (Manca and Manca Demurtas 1988, fig. 20.4).
 
Fig. 32 - Pans.
 
 
The pan with a short convex and slightly open wall and a rounded rim (Fig. 32.3) is comparable to specimens from the nuraghe Baumendula of Villaurbana (Santoni 1992: 144, fig. 1.2), and at the site of Noeddos at Mara (Trump 1990, fig. 29 k, 29 w).
 
The pan with a higher wall, slightly open, with an externally cut rim and with the base undistinguished from the wall (Fig. 32.4), is similar to a pan from Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 19, fig. 1.3).
 
The fragment of pan with more developed walls, with a rounded rim and the base undistinguished from the rim (Fig. 32.5), can be compared to similar vessels from Sipoi (Sebis and Pau forthcoming, fig. 1.1), Noeddos of Mara (Trump 1990, fig. 29 n), and Santa Vittoria of Nuraxinieddu (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III. 3).

The fragment of pan with a more developed rim, which is slightly open and externally cut (Fig. 32.6), has parallels at Sipoi (Sebis and Pau forthcoming, fig. 1.5), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III.1), Noeddos (Trump 1990, fig. 29 v), Sa Turricola of Muros (Ferrarese Ceruti 1978, tav. XV. 19), and at the nuraghe Friarosu of Mogorella (Manca Demurtas and Demurtas 1984, fig. 23.3).

The pan with a slightly open and flattened rim (Fig. 32.7), is similar to a pan from Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 156, fig. IX.6).

The pans with higher walls and with a rounded and slim rim (Fig. 32.9-11), have parallels in the sites of Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 19, fig. 1.6), Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 116, tav. VI. 1), Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 156, tav. IX. 1).

The three fragments of pans with open and convex walls and with a flattened rim (Fig. 32.8,12-13), can be compared to some finds from the sites of Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 156, tav. IX. 5), Sennori Oridda (Castaldi 1969: 237, fig. 50.14), and Muros Sa Turricola (Ferrarese Ceruti 1978, tav. XIII. 9).

The pan with open walls and a rounded rim, with a distinguished base (Fig. 32.15), is similar to those at the sites of Sipoi (Sebis, Pau cds. fig. 2.9), in the alfa (Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 103, fig.5.3) and F contexts of the settlement of Sa Osa (Pau forthcoming, fig. 3.1), Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 156, tav. IX. 5,8).

Trays

Trays are similar to pans, but with higher walls. Within this class, distinctions are based on the height of the walls, and the distinction between major or minor 'openness'; because of the fragmentation of the record, much emphasis has been placed on the shape of the rims and on the profile of the walls.

Those trays with open and straight to convex walls, a rounded rim (Fig. 33.1-4) and which may have a band handle on the wall (Fig. 33.9), cannot be definitively ascribed to a specific type because of the fragmentation of the finds; but they can nevertheless be compared to vessels from Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III.11), Sa Osa struttura alfa (Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 103, fig. 5.5-6, fig. 6.1), Sa Osa fossa F (Pau forthcoming, fig. 1.2-3), Sa Osa fossa G1 (Pau forthcoming, fig. 3.2), Sant'Elia (Atzori 1992: 133, tav. II.1-10).
 

Fig. 33 - Trays.
 

The trays with open and straight to convex walls, with a rounded and flared rim (Fig. 33.5-8, 10), are comparable to finds at the sites of Sipoi (Sebis, Pau forthcoming, fig. 2.9), Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 156, tav. IX.11), Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 19, fig. 1.15), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III. 14), and in the nuraghe Fruscos of Paulilatino (Manca Demurtas and Demurtas 1984, fig. 20.18).

The trays with open and straight walls, with a flattened and flared rim (Fig. 33.11,13-14), are similar to vessels from Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998:156, tav. IX, 16, 19, tav. X. 1), the nuraghe Peppe Gallu of Uri (Contu 1959: 89, fig. 15.42), and the protonuraghe Fruscos di Paulilatino (Manca Demurtas and Demurtas 1984, fig. 20.16).

The fragment with flared walls and a flattened rim (Fig. 33.12), is similar to finds at the sites of Sant'Elia (Atzori 1992: 133, tav. II.4), and the nuraghe Fruscos of Paulilatino (Manca Demurtas and Demurtas 1984, fig. 20.10).

The trays with flared walls and a rounded and internally flared rim (Fig. 33.15), are comparable to trays from Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 19, fig. 1.14) and Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 116, tav. VII.7).

Fragments of bases with basket impressions

Two fragments of bases which have basket impressions on the outside, are ascribable to the class of pans or trays, and can be compared to similar fragments almost exclusively from this phase of the Nuragic period, located in the Campidano of Oristano area as well as other sites in Sardinia.

The concentric impressions could represent impressions of mats or baskets of weaved vegetable fibers, on which these types of vessels may have been placed to dry before cooking as part of the process of production.  

The fragments are comparable to plates, pans or trays from the sites of Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 19, fig. 1.13), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III.2-4), Sa Osa (Pau forthcoming, fig. 3.), Sennori Oridda (Castaldi 1969: 240, fig. 51.7, pag. 52.14), and fossa F dell'insediamento di Sa Osa (Pau forthcoming, fig. 1.5).

Bowls

The conical bowls with a straight to slightly convex profile and a flattened rim (Fig. 34.2-3), have parallels with pottery from Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 19, fig.1.16), Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 116, tav. VI. 10,14), and Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III.16).
 

Fig. 34 - Bowls 1/2.
 

The bowls with a rounded profile and a flattened and externally flared rim (Fig. 34.6-7) can be compared to vessels from Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III. 16), Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 19, fig. 1.25), Sipoi (Sebis and Pau forthcoming, fig. 2.11), and Fossa F di Sa Osa (Pau forthcoming, fig. 2.8).

The hemispherical bowl with a rounded profile and a flattened rim (Fig. 34.8) is similar to fragments from Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 115, tav. VI.10), struttura alfa (Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 205, fig.7.3) and dalla fossa F di Sa Osa (Pau forthcoming, fig. 1.10).

The bowls with a rounded profile and a thickened flattened rim (Fig. 35.7-8)  are similar to exemplars from Sipoi (Sebis and Pau forthcoming, fig. 3.1), Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 116, tav. VI.16) and Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 157, tav. 10.11).
 

Fig. 35 - Bowls 2/2.
 

The conical bowls with a rounded profile and a thickened flattened rim (Fig. 35.1-5) are similar to bowls from Montegonella (Sebis 1986:19, fig. 1.16), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III. 16-17), Sant'Elia (Atzori 1992: 133, tav. II. 10) and Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 157, tav.XI. 1).

The fragments of bowl with a thickened and flattened rim (Fig. 35) can be compared to finds at Sa Osa fossa G1 (Pau forthcoming, fig. 3.3), and Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998, tav. IX.17).

Cups

The cup with the maximum diameter at the careening, upper walls with sinuous profile and slightly flared rim (Fig. 36.1) is comparable to vessels at the sites of Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 157, tav. XII. 7) e da Sa Osa struttura alfa (Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 206, fig. 8.2).
 
Fig. 36 - Cups.
 

The cups with higher walls and sinuous to slightly concave profile and with a rounded rim (Fig. 36.2, 6-8), can be compared to pottery from the sites of Sipoi (Sebis and Pau forthcoming, fig. 2.5), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 114, tav. VIII.16), Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 116, tav. VI), Montigu Mannu (Sebis 1992: 144 n.27), Noeddos of Mara (Trump 1990), Alfa Structure (Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 206, fig. 8.1)  and fossa F at Sa Osa  (Pau forthcoming, fig. 1.6).

The cup with the maximum diameter at the careening, brief upper walls with a straight profile, a rounded rim and a handle on the wall (Fig. 36.3), is similar to some cups from Sa Osa fossa F (Pau forthcoming, fig. 3.4) and e dal nuraghe Nuracraba di Oristano (Sebis 1985: 105, n.6).

Jars

The ovoid jars with a sunken and rounded rim (Fig. 37.2-3), can be compared to jars from Biddazzoni Noa of Zeddiani (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.11-12), Montegonella of Nuraxinieddu (Sebis 1986: 19, fig.1.34-35,39), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 113, tav. III. 31, p. 114, tav IV. 18, 22), Conca Illonis of Cabras (Sebis 1998: 157, tav. XII.3) and Campu de Santu Perdu of Narbolia (Usai 2005: 51, fig. 14.10).
 
Fig. 37 - Jars 1/3.


The ovoid jars with a sunken and obliquely cut rim (Fig. 37.1,6), are similar to the ones found at Biddazzoni Noa (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.13), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995:114, tav. IV. 22) and Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 19, fig.1.37), and again Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 157, tav. XI. 11).

The globular examples with a thickened and flattened rim (Fig. 38.2), can be compared to pottery from Montegonella (Sebis 1986, fig. 2.2), Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 17, tav. VII.3,5) and Biddazzoni Noa (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.17).
 
Fig. 38 - Jars 2/3.


The ovoid jar with thickened and rounded rim (Fig. 38.1, 3-4), has parallels among the materials from the sites of Sipoi (Sebis and Pau forthcoming, fig. 3.7), Sa Osa (Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 207, fig. 9.3), Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 157, tav. XIII. 3-5), Biddazzoni Noa (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.18), Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 117, tav. VII. 7), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1992: 143, tav. II.b. 10), and Campu de Santu Perdu (Usai 2005: 51, fig. 14. 12).

The ovoid jars with a slightly flared and 'rounded to flattened' rim (Fig. 39.1-2), are close to exemplars from the sites of Biddazzoi Noa (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.15), Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 20, fig. 2.1), Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995:117, tav. VIII. 9), Alfa structure (Depalmas and Vidili 2011: 207, fig. 9.1-3), Fossa F (Pau forthcoming, fig. 2.5) and Fossa G1 (Pau forthcoming, fig. 3.6) of Sa Osa, and from Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 157, tav. XIII.2-5).
 
Fig. 39 - Jars 3/3.


The ovoid jars with a slightly flared rim, forming a short vertical collar (Fig. 39.3-11), are similar to vessels from Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 20, fig. 2.3), Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 159, tav. XII.4,6), dalla fossa F di Sa Osa (Pau forthcoming, fig. 2.3-5), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 124, tav.(IV.24), and Su Sattu 'e Serra of Nuraxinieddu (Sebis 1992, tav. II.26, tav. III.21).

Internal rimmed jars

This ceramic class is exclusive to the Middle Bronze age. The use of decoration on their esternal walls, which is not very frequent in this period on pottery, suggests that they were intended as special vessels, used for a specific kind of storage in a domestic field.

At the site of Bau 'e Procus this type of vessel has a horizontal and developed rim (Fig. 40), and comparisons can be made with finds at several sites of the Campidano di Oristano area, such as Biddazzoni Noa (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5. 20), Sipoi (Sebis and Pau forthcoming, fig.2.11), Santa Maria Su Claru (Sebis 1995: 117, tav. VII.12), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 115, tav. V.1-3), S. Elia of Santa Giusta (Atzori 1992, tav. II.2), Campu de Santu Perdu (Usai 2005: 51, fig. 14.2), Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 159, tav. XII.8,10), San Cosimo of Gonnosfanadiga (Ugas 1981, fig.3.1-2) and S'Arrieddu of Cabras (Atzori 1992, tav. II.14).
 
Fig. 40 - Internal rimmed jars.
 

Reverse cooking bowls

Reverse cooking pots are also found in other phases, but during the Middle Bronze age they have smaller dimensions than those of later periods, and a technological typology which is very similar to that of the trays, from which they differ primarily through a higher convexity of the base. The fragment of a cooking bowl from Bau 'e Procus (Fig. 41, n. 1) has a handle closely situated to the base, and is comparable to a specimen found at the site of Conca Illonis of Cabras (Sebis 1998: 156, tav. IX.10).
 
Fig. 41 - Reverse cooking bowl (1), jar with an internal splint (2) and handle (3),
 
 

Jars with an internal splint

This kind of pottery (Fig. 41, n. 2), typical of the Middle Bronze age, has several parallels at sites in the Campidano of Oristano: similar fragments come from Biddazzoni Noa (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.22), Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 20, fig. 2.4-8), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 1995: 115, tav. V.4-5), Alfa Structure (Depalmas, Vidili 2011: 206, fig. 8.3) and Fossa F of Sa Osa (Pau forthcoming, fig. 2.6), and from Conca Illonis (Sebis 1998: 159, tav. XII.12).

LITHICS

Surveys in the area of the Bau'e Procus site have also recovered lithics, namely two fragments of mace-heads and a circular find which is similar to the others, but differs in that instead of a hole it has two hollows in the centre (Fig. 42). This find could represent a different type of tool of which we do not know the specific function, or a mace-head which was still in the process of production. Similar finds have been found in other prehistoric and protohistoric contexts.
 

Fig. 42 - Lithics.
 

Finds comparable to the mace-heads come from several nuragic sites, and particularly, with regards to the Middle Bronze age villages of the Campidano di Oristano, from the sites of  Montegonella (Sebis 1986: 21, fig. 3.8), Santa Vittoria (Sebis 2006: 140, fig. 28.1-4),  Biddazzoni Noa (Sebis 2009: 34, fig. 5.25), and Sa Osa (Castangia 2011, fig. 23).

CONCLUSIONS

The chrono-typological analysis of the ceramic finds from the site of Bau 'e Procus clearly indicates that the settlement was occupied during the medium and final phases of the Middle Bronze age (1600-1400). The record of pottery types found at the site is comparable to well known classes of pottery of the very early Nuragic phases, and in particular those related to settlements made up of sunken structures and without nuraghe, characteristic of the Campidano di Oristano and Sinis regions, such as Sipoi (Baratili San Pietro), Montegonella (Nuraxinieddu), Santa Maria Su Claru (Nuraxinieddu), Santa Vittoria (Nuraxinieddu), Sa Osa (Cabras), Conca Illonis (Cabras) and S. Elia (Santa Giusta). Further comparisons of pottery types can be made with finds from different contexts, such as the nuraghi and Giants' Tombs located in the Oristano area, but also in other regions of the island.

The distinctive shapes of the Middle Bronze age wares, such as pans and trays, jars with internal splints and jars with internal rims are well represented at the site, as are some other elements typical of the same period, such as the reverse cooking bowls and the decoration on the vessels. The absence of elbow handles allows us to discount the likelihood of an initial occupation of the site in a very early phase of this period, while the dot decorations over the internal rimmed jars, in association with other characteristics, such as the jars with a brief collar, or the jars with thickened or flattened rim, allow us to suppose a development of the settlement in the medium and late phase of the Middle Bronze age.

It appears more and more clear that the Campidano di Oristano region was a densely populated area during the Middle Bronze Age phase, inhabited with villages made up of sunken structures and engaging in agricultural activities. A complete analysis of the settlement processes in the area cannot be made without a systematic publication of the large volume of data which has been collected in the field in the last few decades, and this paper represents an initial step in that direction.


REFERENCES

Atzeni, E. (1975) Nuovi idoli della Sardegna prenuragica. Studi Sardi, 28, 1 (1973-74), 3-51.

Atzori, G. (1992) Il villaggio nuragico di Sant'Elia in Santa Giusta (Oristano). In: La Sardegna nel Mediterraneo tra il Bronzo Medio e il Bronzo Recente (XVI-XIII sec.a.C.), Atti del III Convegno di studi 'Un millennio di relazioni tra la Sardegna e i paesi del Mediterraneo', Selargius, 19-22 novembre 1987, Cagliari, 127-134.

Castangia, G. (2011) Continuity and change in the nuragic rural landscape: the case of  Sa Osa. Traces in Time, 1 (2010/2011), available at the address http://www.archaeologicaltraces.org/index.php/2014-01-28-09-56-01/traces-in-time/29-tit-1-2011/38-tit0001.

Depalmas, A., Vidili, S. (2011). La struttura a del settore settentrionale di Sa Osa-Cabras. Notizia preliminare. In: Mastino, A, Spanu, P.G., Usai, A. and Zucca, R. (eds) Tharros Felix IV. Roma: Carocci, 193-208.

Lugliè, C. (1995) Forme ceramiche della prima età dei metalli e della cultura Monte Claro nell'Oristanese. In: La ceramica racconta la storia. La ceramica artistica d'uso e da costruzione nell'Oristanese dal Neolitico ai giorni nostri, Atti del I Convegno di Studi, Oristano, 1995,  Oristano, 71-99.

Lugliè, C. (1998) L'Eneolitico. In: Aureum Stagnum. Le origini di Oristano, Oristano-Cagliari, 17-20.

Pau L. (forthcoming) Le fosse F e G1 dell'insediamento nuragico di Sa Osa (Cabras – OR). In: Atti della XLIV Riunione Scientifica 'La Preistoria e Protostoria della Sardegna', Cagliari-Barumini-Sassari, 2009.

Sebis, S. (1986) Villaggio di età del Bronzo a Montegonella (Nuraxi¬nieddu-OR). Studi Sardi, 26 (1981-85), 17-30.

Sebis, S. (1992) Siti con ceramica 'a pettine' del Campidano Maggiore e rapporti con la facies di Bonnannaro B'. In: La Sardegna nel Mediterraneo tra il Bronzo Medio  e il Bronzo Recente (XVI -XIII sec. a.C.), Atti del III Convegno di studi 'Un millennio di relazioni tra la Sardegna e i paesi del Mediterraneo', Selargius, 19-22 novembre 1987, Cagliari, 135-144.

Sebis, S. (1995) La ceramica nuragica del Bronzo Medio (XVI-XIV sec. a.C.) e del Bronzo Recente (XIII-XII sec. a.C.) nell'Oristanese. In: La ceramica racconta la storia. La ceramica artistica d'uso e da costruzione nell'Oristanese dal Neolitico ai giorni nostri, Atti del I Convegno di Studi, Oristano, 101-120.

Sebis, S. (1998) Il Sinis in età nuragica e gli aspetti della produzione ceramica. In: La ceramica racconta la storia. La ceramica artistica d'uso e da costruzione nell'Oristanese dal Neolitico ai giorni nostri, Atti del II Convegno di Studi, Oristano-Cabras, 25-26 Ottobre 1996, 107-173.

Sebis, S. (2006) Santa Vittoria di Nuraxinieddu (OR): testimonianze archeologiche di età preistorica e protostorica. Quaderni Oristanesi, 55/56, 113-140.

Sebis, S. (2009) Testimonianze di età nuragica e prenuragica nel territorio di Zeddiani. In: Stiglitz, A., Zucca, R. and Desogus, P. (eds) Cellevane-Zeddiani. Storia di una comunità fra Evo Antico ed Età Moderna. Zeddiani, 30-47.

Sebis, S. (forthcoming) Il villaggio di facies Sa Turricula di Santa Vittoria di Nuraxinieddu (OR). In: Spanu, P.G. and Zucca, R. (eds.) Oristano e il suo territorio 1. Dalla preistoria all'alto Medioevo. Roma: Carocci, 191-224.

Sebis S. and Pau L. (forthcoming) L'insediamento nuragico di Sipoi (Baratili S. Pietro-OR). In: Atti della XLIV Riunione Scientifica dell'Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, 'La Preistoria e Protostoria della Sardegna', Cagliari-Barumini-Sassari.

Tore, G. and Stiglitz, A. (1992) Osservazioni di icnografia nuragica nel Sinis e nell'Alto Oristanese (Ricerche 1980-1987). In: La Sardegna nel Mediterraneo tra il Bronzo Medio e il Bronzo Recente (XVI-XIII sec. a.C.), Atti del III Convegno di studi 'Un millennio di relazioni tra la Sardegna e i paesi del Mediterraneo', Selargius, 19-22 novembre 1987. Cagliari, 89-105.

Usai, A. (2005) Testimonianze prenuragiche e nuragiche nel territorio di Narbolia. In: Zucca, R. (eds), Nurabolia-Narbolia. Una Villa di frontiera del Giudicato di Arborea. Narbolia, 21-57.

Usai, A. (2011) L'insediamento nuragico di Sa Osa - Cabras (OR). Topografia e considerazioni generali. In Mastino, A, Spanu, P.G., Usai, A. and Zucca, R. (eds), Tharros Felix IV. Roma: Carocci, 159-185.

Zanardelli, T. (1899) Le stazioni preistoriche e lacumarensi nel Campidano di Oristano. Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana, 25, 7-9, 109-177.


APPENDIX - FINDS INVENTORY

 

ID

Picture

Bag

Collect. Year

1

Fig. 32.1

10

1989

2

Fig. 32.2

10

1989

3

Fig. 32.3

9

04.10.92

4

Fig. 32.4

8

1990

5

Fig. 32.5

10

1989

6

Fig. 32.6

8

1990

7

Fig. 32.7

10

1989

8

Fig. 32.8

9

04.10.92

9

Fig. 32.9

8

1990

10

Fig. 32.10

10

1989

11

Fig. 32.11

6

1977-79

12

Fig. 32.12

10

1989

13

Fig. 32.13

6

1977-79

14

Fig. 32.14

10

1989

15

Fig. 32.15

4

2003

16

Fig. 33.1

10

1989

17

Fig. 33.2

10

1989

18

Fig. 33.3

10

1989

19

Fig. 33.4

10

1989

20

Fig. 33.5

10

1989

21

Fig. 33.6

10

1989

22

Fig. 33.7

10

1989

23

Fig. 33.8

8

1990

24

Fig. 33.9

10

1989

25

Fig. 33.10

8

1990

26

Fig. 33.11

7

1987

27

Fig. 33.12

6

1977-79

28

Fig. 33.13

8

1990

29

Fig. 33.14

10

1989

30

Fig. 33.15

4

2003

31

Fig. 33.16

8

1990

32

Fig. 33.17

9

04.10.92

33

Fig. 33.18

10

1989

34

Fig. 34.1

10

1989

35

Fig. 34.2

10

1989

36

Fig. 34.3

10

1989

37

Fig. 34.4

6

1977-79

38

Fig. 34.5

6

1977-79

39

Fig. 34.6

8

1990

Fig. 34.7

10

1989

41

Fig. 34.8

10

1989

42

Fig. 34.9

9

04.10.92

43

Fig. 34.10

6

1977-79

44

Fig. 35.1

6

1977-79

45

Fig. 35.2

10

1989

46

Fig. 35.3

10

1989

47

Fig. 35.4

10

1989

48

Fig. 35.5

10

1989

49

Fig. 35.6

6

1977-79

50

Fig. 35.7

6

1977-79

51

Fig. 35.8

10

1989

52

Fig. 36.1

4

2003

53

Fig. 36.2

8

1990

54

Fig. 36.3

5

23.12.05

55

Fig. 36.4

7

1987

56

Fig. 36.5

8

1990

57

Fig. 36.6

5

1977-79

58

Fig. 36.7

10

1989

59

Fig. 36.8

10

1989

60

Fig. 37.1

10

1989

61

Fig. 37.2

6

1977-79

62

Fig. 37.3

9

04.10.92

63

Fig. 37.4

6

1977-79

64

Fig. 37.5

9

04.10.92

65

Fig. 37.6

8

1990

66

Fig. 37.7

10

1989

67

Fig. 38.1

4

2003

68

Fig. 38.2

7

1987

69

Fig. 38.3

9

04.10.92

70

Fig. 38.4

10

1989

71

Fig. 39.1

10

1989

72

Fig. 39.2

8

1990

73

Fig. 39.3

6

1977-79

74

Fig. 39.4

9

04.10.92

75

Fig. 39.5

9

04.10.92

76

Fig. 39.6

8

1990

77

Fig. 39.7

6

1977-79

78

Fig. 39.8

10

1989

79

Fig. 39.9

10

1989

80

Fig. 39.10

5

23.12.05

81

Fig. 39.11

9

 04.10.92

82

Fig. 40.1

1

12.12.04

83

Fig. 40.2

6

1977-79

84

Fig. 40.3

5

23.12.05

85

Fig. 40.4

4

2003

86

Fig. 40.5

3

08.06

87

Fig. 41.1

6

1977-79

88

Fig. 41.2

10

1989

89

Fig. 41.3

10

1989

90

Fig. 41.4

6

1977-79

91

Fig. 42.1

8

1990

92

Fig. 42.2

6

1977-79

93

Fig. 42.3

10

1989

94

Fig. 43.1

8

1990

95

Fig. 43.2

10

1989

96

Fig. 43.3

10

1989